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The last paragraph is particularily interesting. She waited on her husband as if he were a god, untiringly. She did the household chores without fail and, wonder of tact, won the affection of the servants. Easwaran Throughout history, India has been exposed to different Western cultures. In this story, Sanudasa, a merchant in India, strives for riches as he leaves his mother in her village.
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While Indian culture may become more westernized, these beliefs seem to stay part of Indian civilization. India is an excellent example of a country that anyone interested can gain significant insight through this type of analysis. Lynn H. Van Buitenen, J. Thapar, Romila.
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A History of India, Revised Edition. In Baroda, Aurobindo joined the state service in , working first in the Survey and Settlements department, later moving to the Department of Revenue and then to the Secretariat, and much miscellaneous work like teaching grammar and assisting in writing speeches for the Maharaja of Gaekwad until He was later promoted to the post of vice-principal.
During his stay at Baroda, he had contributed to many articles to Indu Prakash and had spoken as a chairman of the Baroda college board. He linked up with resistance groups in Bengal and Madhya Pradesh , while travelling to these states. He established contact with Lokmanya Tilak and Sister Nivedita.
Aurobindo often travelled between Baroda and Bengal, at first in a bid to re-establish links with his parent's families and other Bengali relatives, including his sister Sarojini and brother Barin, and later increased to establish resistance groups across the Presidency. He formally moved to Calcutta in after the announcement of the Partition of Bengal.
In , on a visit to Calcutta, he married year-old Mrinalini, the daughter of Bhupal Chandra Bose, a senior official in government service. Aurobindo was 28 at that time.
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Mrinalini died seventeen years later in December during the influenza pandemic. Aurobindo was influenced by studies on rebellion and revolutions against England in medieval France and the revolts in America and Italy. In his public activities he favoured non-co-operation and passive resistance; in private he took up secret revolutionary activity as a preparation for open revolt, in case that the passive revolt failed.
In Bengal, with Barin's help, he established contacts with revolutionaries, inspiring radicals such as Bagha Jatin or Jatin Mukherjee and Surendranath Tagore. He helped establish a series of youth clubs, including the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta in Aurobindo attended the Congress meeting headed by Dadabhai Naoroji and participated as a councillor in forming the fourfold objectives of "Swaraj, Swadesh, Boycott and national education".
In at the Surat session of Congress where moderates and extremists had a major showdown, he led along with extremists along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The Congress split after this session.
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He was arrested again in May in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case. He was acquitted in the ensuing trial, following the murder of chief prosecution witness Naren Gosain within jail premises which subsequently led to the case against him collapsing.
Aurobindo was subsequently released after a year of isolated incarceration. Once out of the prison he started two new publications, Karmayogin in English and Dharma in Bengali. He also delivered the Uttarpara Speech hinting at the transformation of his focus to spiritual matters. The British persecution continued because of his writings in his new journals and in April Aurobindo moved to Pondicherry, where Britain's secret police monitored his activities.
This sparked an outburst of public anger against the British, leading to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign by groups of revolutionaries, who included Aurobindo. In , Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford, a judge known for handing down particularly severe sentences against nationalists.
However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in another carriage and killed two British women, the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy. Aurobindo was also arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail. The trial of the Alipore Bomb Case lasted for a year, but eventually, he was acquitted on 6 May His defence counsel was Chittaranjan Das. During this period in the Jail, his view of life was radically changed due to spiritual experiences and realizations.
Consequently, his aim went far beyond the service and liberation of the country.
Aurobindo said he was "visited" by Vivekananda in the Alipore Jail: "It is a fact that I was hearing constantly the voice of Vivekananda speaking to me for a fortnight in the jail in my solitary meditation and felt his presence. In his autobiographical notes, Aurobindo said he felt a vast sense of calmness when he first came back to India. He could not explain this and continued to have various such experiences from time to time.
alhautivime.ml He knew nothing of yoga at that time and started his practice of it without a teacher, except for some rules that he learned from Ganganath, a friend who was a disciple of Brahmananda. Aurobindo was influenced by the guidance he got from the yogi, who had instructed Aurobindo to depend on an inner guide and any kind of external guru or guidance would not be required. In Aurobindo withdrew himself from all political activities and went into hiding at Chandannagar in the house of Motilal Roy , while the British were trying to prosecute him for sedition on the basis of a signed article titled 'To My Countrymen', published in Karmayogin.
As Aurobindo disappeared from view, the warrant was held back and the prosecution postponed.
Aurobindo manoeuvred the police into open action and a warrant was issued on 4 April , but the warrant could not be executed because on that date he had reached Pondicherry, then a French colony. In Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo dedicated himself to his spiritual and philosophical pursuits. In , after four years of secluded yoga, he started a monthly philosophical magazine called Arya. This ceased publication in Many years later, he revised some of these works before they were published in book form.
At the beginning of his stay at Pondicherry, there were few followers, but with time their numbers grew, resulting in the formation of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in For some time afterwards, his main literary output was his voluminous correspondence with his disciples. His letters, most of which were written in the s, numbered in the several thousand.
Many were brief comments made in the margins of his disciple's notebooks in answer to their questions and reports of their spiritual practice—others extended to several pages of carefully composed explanations of practical aspects of his teachings. These were later collected and published in book form in three volumes of Letters on Yoga.
In the late s, he resumed work on a poem he had started earlier—he continued to expand and revise this poem for the rest of his life. Sri Aurobindo died on 5 December Around 60, people attended to see his body resting peacefully. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , and the President Rajendra Prasad praised him for his contribution to Yogic philosophy and the independence movement. National and international newspapers commemorated his death.
Sri Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa b. Alfassa , came to be known as The Mother. In her 20s she studied occultism with Max Theon. Along with her husband, Paul Richard, she went to Pondicherry on 29 March ,  and finally settled there in Sri Aurobindo considered her his spiritual equal and collaborator.
After 24 November , when Sri Aurobindo retired into seclusion, he left it to her to plan, build and run the ashram, the community of disciples which had gathered around them. Sometime later, when families with children joined the ashram, she established and supervised the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education with its experiments in the field of education.