It is used for recreation and education of the public. It is a zoo where animals are comparatively free and are shown in the natural surrounding with barriers and restrictions hidden from view. It is best located on the outskirts of cities where enough land is available. It is a sanctuary within the sanctuary or inner portion of a wild sanctuary or national park in which no forest operation or management is allowed.
Even visitors are not allowed to prevent any kind of disturbance to wildlife. The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generation and to maintain its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations is called the conservation. It is scientific management of wildlife to maintain it at its optimum level. The conservation of wildlife is directly related to healthy and better forests.
Essay on Wildlife Conservation | India | Biology
Wildlife conservation includes protection, preservation, and perpetuation of rare species of plants and animals in their natural habitats. Sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems which support rural communities and major industries. For wildlife conservation and its propagation, proper management techniques should be employed. Sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, projects, etc.
Efforts should be made to preserve the endangered species. Species that are sole representative of their family or genus should receive special attention. Endangered species should be given priority over a vulnerable one, a vulnerable species over a rare one and a rare species over other categories. All the threatened species should be protected. Priority be given belonging to monotypic genera, endangered over-vulnerable, vulnerable over rare and rare over other species.
Wildlife should be protected in their natural habitat in situ and in zoo and botanical gardens ex situ.
The threatened species should be conserved in situ as well as in ex situ. Identify the habitats of wild relatives of the economically valuable and useful plants and animals and preserve them in protected areas like sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves. The critical habitats of the species like feeding, breeding, nursery and resting areas should be protected safeguarded. In case of migratory or wide ranging animals, protected areas should be established to preserve their habitats. For migratory or wide ranging animals, pollution and exploitation of the environment along their migration routes should be controlled.
The national protection programmes have to be coordinated with international programmes like biosphere reserve programme of UNESCO. National Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in India in Wildlife protection strategies were formulated in India in Biosphere reserves have also been put into practice since Wildlife Institute of India is located at Dehradun Uttaranchal. The productive capacities of exploited species and ecosystems have to be determined and their utilisation should not exceed from those capacities.go site
Wildlife Conservation Essay
International trade in wild plants and animals has to be regulated by appropriate legislative and administrative measures. She said that Indian tradition teaches us that all forms of life — human, animal and plant — are so closely interlinked that disturbance in one gives rise to imbalance in the other … Nature is beautifully balanced. Any disturbance creates a chain reaction which may not be visible for some time. The science of zoogeography has both ecological and historical aspects and the two are intimately interwoven.
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Animals and plants are living indicators of the characteristics of their environment. Their ranges mark the places in which environmental conditions are the same or similar. The evolution and distribution of species throws light upon the geological evolution of various parts of earth and upon the course of global changes in climate and vegetation.
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Based mainly on historical-cum-geographical factors, Philip Lutley Schaler and Alfred Russel Wallace have divided the world into six zoo-geographical regions, namely- Neoarctic, Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian and Neotropical. India is of recent origin and it is a part of Oriental region. North Indian fauna during tertiary period were mastodons, eleven species of elephants, Siwalik bison, buffalo, ox, tamarau as well as the recent African animals like hippopotamus, giraffe, chimpanzee, rhinoceros and four-horned ruminant Sivatherium.
Area was covered with savannah and woodlands. Asiatic lion, striped hyaena and antelopes can be the relics of the past. The dhole, most endangered top predator, is on the edge of extinction. Less than members of species are alive in the world. From Siwalik were discovered fragments of jaw of Ramapitheus primitive hominid ape. Peninsular-Indian sub-region which shares the animals of North Africa, such as lion, cheetah, leopard, hyaena, jackal and antelopes. This sub-region contains red panda, gibbon, tree shrew, tapir, giant squirrel, and flying lemur.
It is gregarious carnivorous animal. It prefers open scrub forest mixed with thorny deciduous forest.
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It is found only in Gir forest of Gujarat State as well as in the whole Asian continent. Its habitat should be improved to raise the carrying-capacity for the prey species to meet the full demand of lion. For herbivorous prey species, there should be total control in grazing of the livestock. Moghul emperor Jahangir was fond of hunting male lions and tigers. Smith during Sepoy Mutiny in India in killed lions of which 50 were from Delhi alone. By 20th century, the lions population was only The last lion was killed at Anadra and Jaswantpura Rajasthan in Gir Lion Sanctuary Project was started in Due to conservation measures, lion population increased gradually to in Tiger is a solitary carnivorous animal having apparent territory.
It is nocturnal predatory inhabiting dense forest such as thorny forest, dry and moist deciduous forest, evergreen and semi-evergreen forest. For raising its population, pasture lands should be improved for raising the carrying-capacity of the habitat for herbivorous preys.
In the beginning of 20th century tiger population was about 40, In early s their population was reduced to about due to unrestricted killing for skin, flesh and fat, etc. Indian tiger census conducted in showed their existence of only tigers. To save them from extinction, Project Tiger was started on April 1, , by the Government of India with the help of W. Worldwide Fund for Nature.
Reasons Why We Need to Save Wildlife: Tour My India
Today there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area of 37, sq. It is found in plains and hilly forest up to metre elevation. It needs a lot of water for drinking and bathing, so there must be perennial river, lake, etc. Its food is bamboo and grass, which should be in sufficient quantity. An adult elephant needs about three quintals green fodder daily. Generally only the males have large tusks, which are the extension of second pair of incisors. Canines and all incisors have lost. Lengthened nose and upper lip forms the trunk.
In some males, tusks are no longer than females a few inches long and called tuskless or Makhana. Elephants have very poor sight, but smell and hearing are acute. Limbs are pillar-like.
Toes are embedded in a common mass of foot and encased in a common skin. Their position is indicated externally by broad flat nails which may be fewer than the number of toes. Project Elephant started in which works for elephant protection. Elephants in India are trained for hunting, transportation, processions, travelling, visiting wildlife parks and sanctuaries, etc. Periyar wildlife sanctuary situated in Kerala having an area about sq. It inhabits forest having marshy land and tall grasses.